August Putsch of 1991
- Opponents of Communist Party General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev began to plot against him in late 1990, believing that his reforms threatened the party and the Soviet state. Acoterie of conservative bureaucrats and senior police officials sought to replace him quietly and quickly, the way that party conservatives had replaced Nikita Khrushchev in 1964. They failed to consider, however, that the tactics of 1964 could not work in 1991 after six years of Gorbachev’s reforms had raised the political consciousness of the Russian people.KGB Chair Vladimir Kryuchkov and his senior deputies played a critical role in planning the putsch, as did MVDchief Boris Pugo. Gorbachev and his wife’s office and apartments were bugged; thousands of pairs of handcuffs were ordered, and arrest warrants were drafted for thousands of reformers and “troublemakers” across the country. The plan was to be executed on 18 August, while Gorbachev and his entourage were on vacation at their summer retreat at Foros in the Crimea. Early that morning, KGB Border Guard units surrounded his dacha, and his chief body guard took control of the Soviet “suitcase,” a computer notebook that contained the codes required to launch a nuclear strike.The putsch was generally successful across the country but failed in Moscow, where Russian President Boris Yeltsin made his way to the Russian White House, the parliament building, and rallied support. Efforts by the coup plotters to convince KGB Spetznaz units to storm the White House, neutralize Yeltsin, and disperse the crowd failed. An abortive effort to storm the building by a small Red Army unit killed three young Yeltsin supporters near the White House, but the plotters lacked the ruthlessness, intelligence, and craft to seize power. The putsch ended with more of a whimper than a bang on 21 August when airborne troops in Moscow withdrew to their bases. All the plotters could do was to return Gorbachev to Moscow and beg forgiveness. Gorbachev did return to Moscow that day, but without the authority to govern his country. The putsch, however, demonstrated the bankruptcy and incompetence of the Communist Party and the KGB. Within three months, power devolved from the Soviet Union to independent republics, and on 25 December 1991 the Soviet flag was replaced by Russian national colors over the Kremlin. The plotters spent more than a year in jail but never stood trial; they were released in 1993.
Historical dictionary of Russian and Soviet Intelligence. Robert W. Pringle. 2014.
Look at other dictionaries:
1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt — 1991 Soviet coup d etat attempt August Coup/August Putsch Russian: Августовский путч Part of the Revolutions of 1989, Cold War, and Dissolution of the Soviet Union … Wikipedia
August coup — (1991) Also known as the August Putsch. Organized by hard liners within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) with support of certain members of the military and the KGB, the coup was a last ditch effort to reverse the reforms of… … Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation
Putsch — Ein Putsch (auch Staatsstreich oder Coup d État genannt, s. u.) ist eine meist überraschende, meist gewaltsame Aktion einer kleineren Gruppierung von Staatsorganen (meistens Militär) mit dem Ziel, die Regierung zu stürzen und die Macht im Staat… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Putschversuch 1991 — Boris Jelzin und Anhänger vor dem Weißen Haus (damals Gebäude des Ministerrates) am 19. August 1991 Während des Putschversuchs von 1991, auch bekannt als Augustputsch (18. – 21. August 1991), setzte eine Gruppe sowjetischer Funktionäre der Kommu … Deutsch Wikipedia
Röhm-Putsch — Als Röhm Putsch bezeichnete die nationalsozialistische Propaganda die Ereignisse von Ende Juni/Anfang Juli 1934 um die Ermordung Ernst Röhms, des Stabschefs der SA, und weiterer SA Funktionäre. Unter den vermutlich etwa 200 Toten waren auch von… … Deutsch Wikipedia
8. August — Der 8. August ist der 220. Tag des Gregorianischen Kalenders (der 221. in Schaltjahren), somit bleiben 145 Tage bis zum Jahresende. Historische Jahrestage Juli · August · September 1 2 … Deutsch Wikipedia
27. August — Der 27. August ist der 239. Tag des Gregorianischen Kalenders (der 240. in Schaltjahren), somit bleiben noch 126 Tage bis zum Jahresende. Historische Jahrestage Juli · August · September 1 2 … Deutsch Wikipedia
3. August — Der 3. August ist der 215. Tag des Gregorianischen Kalenders (der 216. in Schaltjahren). Somit bleiben noch 150 Tage bis Jahresende. Historische Jahrestage Juli · August · September 1 2 … Deutsch Wikipedia
22. August — Der 22. August ist der 234. Tag des Gregorianischen Kalenders (der 235. in Schaltjahren), somit bleiben noch 131 Tage bis zum Jahresende. Historische Jahrestage Juli · August · September 1 2 … Deutsch Wikipedia
Russian Security Services — 1991– Since the August putsch of 1991, the leadership of Russia has sought to realign the internal components of the KGB into different organizations. The rapid changes of names in the years after the August putsch suggest efforts by President… … Historical dictionary of Russian and Soviet Intelligence